Early life[ edit ] Alexander II as a boy. His early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential; until the time of his accession inaged 37, few[ quantify ] imagined that posterity would know him for implementing the most challenging reforms undertaken in Russia since the reign of Peter the Great. Personal and official censorship was rife; criticism of the authorities was regarded as a serious offence.
The Eastern Colossus no longer inspired respect and fear in Europe. Until the country had completely recovered from the exhaustion of the Crimean War the government remained in the background of European politics. Its attitude was graphically described in the famous declaration of Prince Gorchakov: On one point, however, this description was not accurate.
Russia sulked so far as Austria was concerned, for she could not forget that the emperor Francis Joseph, by his wavering and unfriendly conduct towards her during the Crimean War, had ill repaid her assistance to the Habsburg Monarchy inand had fulfilled the cynical prediction of Prince Schwarzenberg that his country would astonish the world by her ingratitude.
It was not without secret satisfaction, therefore, that Prince Gorchakov watched the repeated defeats of the Austrian army in the Italian campaign ofand he felt inclined to respond to the advances made to him by Napoleon III.
But the germs of a Russo-French alliance, which had come into existence immediately after the Crimean War, ripened very slowly, and they were completely destroyed in when the French emperor wounded Russian sensibilities deeply by giving moral and diplomatic support to the Polish insurrection.
On that occasion Bismarck helped Gorchakov to ward off the threatened intervention of France and England, and he thereby founded the cordial relations which subsisted between the cabinets of Berlin and St Petersburg down toand which contributed powerfully to the creation of the German empire by defending the Prussian cabinet against the jealousy and enmity of Austria and France.
In return for these services Bismarck helped Russia to recover a portion of what she had lost by the Crimean War, for it was thanks to his connivance and diplomatic support that she was able in to denounce with impunity the clauses of the treaty of Paris which limited Russian armament in the Black Sea.
Had the tsar been satisfied with this important success, which enabled him to rebuild Sevastopol and construct a Black Sea fleet, his reign might have been a peaceful and prosperous one, but he tried to recover the remainder of what had been lost by the Crimean War, the province of Bessarabia and predominant influence in Turkey.
To effect this, he embarked on the Turkish War ofwhich ended in disappointment, though the campaign enabled him to recover Bessarabia at the expense of his Rumanian ally, it did not increase Russian prestige in the East, because the Russian army was repeatedly repulsed by the Turks, and when at last it reached Constantinople, it was prevented from entering the city by the threatening attitude of England and Austria.
In the field of diplomacy there was likewise disappointment. Much greater success attended the efforts of Russian diplomacy and Russian arms in Asia. By the treaty of Aigun May 28,and without any military operations, the Ruszha cession of a great part of the basin of the Amur was obtained from China.
The greater part of the territory was formally incorporated into the empire, and the petty potentates, such as the khan of Khiva and the amir of Bokhara, who were allowed to retain a semblance of their former sovereignty, became obsequious vassals of the White Tsar.Russian Domestic Policy, When Alexander II.
succeeded to the throne in , the CRIMEAN WAR was still going on. Technologically, Russia was backward, threatened to fall ever more behind.
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Alexander, the eldest son of Foreign policy. Alexander II has gone down into history as the Liberator Tsar. Related personalities: Elizaveta Petrovna Romanova Empress Elizaveta Petrovna was the daughter of Peter the Great, and ruled the Russian Empire for twenty years.
Her rule of the country allowed Russia to prosper in the arts . Also, “it starts to look like me and the feminists” should be “looks like I”.
And “untitled” doesn’t really make sense. And if biology is a hard science, it’s on the extreme soft edge of hard sciences. Abhishek Puri History- HL 20/08/ Compare and Contrast the policies of Alexander II and Alexander III Tsar's Alexander II and his son, Alexander III had different an entirely different ideology when it came to the question of reform.3/5.
Alexander II: Alexander II, emperor of Russia (–81). His liberal education and distress at the outcome of the Crimean War, which had demonstrated Russia’s backwardness, inspired him toward a great program of domestic reforms, the most important being the emancipation () of the serfs.
A period of.