As the percentages indicated above are based on different question formulations and often also on different response scales, they serve for illustrative purposes only and should not be used as a basis for comparison between countries.
The "dark triad" of three personality traits: Sometimes called "dark personality.
Psychopathy is a psychological condition in which the individual shows a profound lack of empathy for the feelings of others, a willingness to engage in immoral and antisocial behavior for short-term gains, and extreme egocentricity.
Psychopaths Comparative review of job satisfaction instruments not have the fear response experienced by most of us to the potential negative consequences of criminal or risky behavior and are relatively insensitive to punishment.
They tend not to be deterred from their self-serving behaviors by criminal or social penalties. In conjunction with their unfeeling and incessant drive to take care of themselves, psychopaths are predators, and anyone who can feed their need at the moment is potential prey.
Psychopaths are at increased risk of engaging in both reactive and instrumental aggression. Instrumental aggression sometimes called proactive or predatory aggression is planned, controlled, and purposeful, and is used for a particular aim—for example, to get drugs or sex, or just to establish dominance.
The primary goal is not necessarily to injure others but simply to obtain the desired outcome. This isn't aggression that arises from an emotional reaction; it's the calculated use of aggression as a tool. Reactive aggression, on the other hand, is much more impulsive and emotion driven and arises from a perceived threat or attack or uncontrolled anger.
The two types of aggression, instrumental and reactive, are not mutually exclusive. People can and do engage in both. The mob hit man may commit murder as part of his job but, like others, can experience road rage after a bad day at work.
The point is that the reliance on instrumental aggression to get what they want is one of me unsettling things that distinguishes some psychopaths from the general population.
Worse, psychopaths are often superficially charming and glib; they are frequently able to take advantage of others because they know that acting genuinely friendly and helpful can be a useful strategy for getting what they want. While violence may be an option, a psychopath is just as willing to use a well-timed compliment, a subtle misstatement of the truth, or an exaggerated apology to achieve his or her self-serving goals.
To a psychopath, a punch in the face and a lie hidden behind a friendly smile are merely separate tools to be employed as dictated by circumstances. Psychopathy Is Not Synonymous with Criminality: Of course, given their proclivity for ignoring social norms and laws, quite a few psychopaths find their way into the criminal justice system, some spending significant portions of their lives incarcerated.
Nevertheless, not all psychopaths are violent or serious criminals. In fact, most psychopaths manage to avoid involvement with the criminal justice system. Either their transgressions of social norms, while destructive and painful to those involved, do not rise to the level of criminal activity, or they are never apprehended by the police for the crimes they do commit.
While true psychopaths share certain behavioral and emotional attributes, they are not all identical, and they exhibit these various characteristics to a greater or lesser degree.
Some psychopaths can control their self-serving behaviors so they remain perhaps just barely within the bounds of legal behavior, not because to do otherwise would be "wrong," but because being caught would unduly interfere with their efforts to get what they want.
In some circumstances, psychopathic traits may actually help an individual become a well-regarded although not necessarily well-liked member of society. A superficially charming and engaging personality combined with a ruthless willingness to "do whatever it takes to get the job done" can be extremely useful in a high-stakes, pressure-filled environment Schouten and Silver,p.
The criteria of APD is easy to measure, resulting in an over inclusive, highly reliable diagnosis but with questionable validity, especially when considering the personality features associated with psychopathy.
Ongoing Controversies — The addition of criminal criteria to Hare's tests has contributed to the view of psychopaths as a type of criminal versus the view that psychopathy is a type of abnormal personality.
Others have suggested results of therapy are essentially unknown based upon today's data. For example, there is a strong tendency to sensationalism or exaggeration: Aggressive narcissism, Factor 2: Socially deviant lifestyle] - three factor solution [Interpersonal, Affective, Behavioral] - four factor solution [Interpersonal, Affective, Behavioral, and Antisocial] - or other?
For example, should psychopathy be seen as a taxon a category or as an attribute as a symptomwhether to view it as a dimension with quantitative degrees of severity or as a set of discrete types or, other? If it is categorical, then psychopathy is either present or absent; if it is dimensional, then varying degrees or features of psychopathy may be present.
Originally, Hare argued strongly that psychopathy is a distinct, categorical disorder. A brief historical context.
The concept of psychopathy has been described many times in many ways, in part, reflecting the heterogeneity of the underlying phenomena. For one of the best overall introductions to the history, see Millon, T. Historical conceptions of psychopathy in the Unites States and Europe.
Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior pp. This list is not comprehensive, dates are approximate. Franz Joseph Gall, German physician, in the late s developed the theory that human behavior was regulated by twenty-seven different "faculties" or "propensities," each located in a particular part of the brain and that the exterior bone structure of the skull indicated which of these propensities were highly developed and which were atrophied in any particular individual phrenology.
Three were linked to criminal behavior if they were highly developed:E-mail address: [email protected] Assessment of a Multidimensional Job Satisfaction Instrument Murat Ã–zpehlivana, A.
Zafer Acarb a-bOkan University, Istanbul, , Turkey Abstract The job satisfaction concept has been attracting the attention of researchers and executives because of its influence on individualsâ€™ .
[size kb ] This report provides a comparative overview of how job satisfaction is measured in national working conditions surveys, based on 16 national contributions to a questionnaire ().It investigates conceptual and methodological issues in the study of job satisfaction.
October - The Personalized System of Instruction: Review and applications to distance education. Lyle K.
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In this book, a leading scholar of comparative politics explores elections as instruments of democracy. Focusing on elections in twenty democracies over the past quarter century.
The job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model was used to examine the relationship between job characteristics, burnout, and (other‐ratings of) performance (N = ).We hypothesized that job demands (e.g., work pressure and emotional demands) would be the most important antecedents of the exhaustion component of burnout, which, in turn, would predict in‐role performance (hypothesis 1).
IntroductionEmotional intelligence (EI) is an emerging topic for psychological, educational, and management researchers and consultants (see, e.g., Shapiro, , Weisinger, ).Many organizations have sent their employees to various EI training courses offered by .