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Embedded systems Electronic devices and components[ edit ] Electronics Technician performing a voltage check on a power circuit card in the air navigation equipment room aboard the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln CVN Electronic component An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic Electronical devices for books used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system.
Components are generally intended to be connected together, usually by being soldered to a printed circuit board PCBto create an electronic circuit with a particular function for example an amplifierradio receiveror oscillator. Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits.
Some common electronic components are capacitorsinductorsresistorsdiodestransistorsetc.
Components are often categorized as active e. History of electronic engineering and Timeline of electrical and electronic engineering Vacuum tubes Thermionic valves were among the earliest electronic components.
They played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the s. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifierscathode ray tubesspecialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices.
In Aprilthe IBM was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market.
From that time on transistors were almost exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals.
Types of circuits[ edit ] Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: A particular device may consist of circuitry that has one or the other or a mix of the two types. Analog electronics Hitachi J adjustable frequency drive chassis Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits.
Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits. Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, modulators, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators.
One rarely finds modern circuits that are entirely analog. These days analog circuitry may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve performance. This type of circuit is usually called "mixed signal" rather than analog or digital. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear operation.
An example is the comparator which takes in a continuous range of voltage but only outputs one of two levels as in a digital circuit. Similarly, an overdriven transistor amplifier can take on the characteristics of a controlled switch having essentially two levels of output.
In fact, many digital circuits are actually implemented as variations of analog circuits similar to this example—after all, all aspects of the real physical world are essentially analog, so digital effects are only realized by constraining analog behavior.
Digital electronics Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels.
Digital circuits are the most common physical representation of Boolean algebraand are the basis of all digital computers. To most engineers, the terms "digital circuit", "digital system" and "logic" are interchangeable in the context of digital circuits.
Most digital circuits use a binary system with two voltage levels labeled "0" and "1".Electronic Logging Devices. NOTE: The information provided on this website is to help promote understanding of and compliance with the ELD rule - it is not a substitute for the specific requirements documented in the rule.
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