Ethics should concern all levels of life: This document is designed as an introduction to making ethical decisions.
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Ethical Decision Making and Behavior 7 Ethical Decision Making and Behavior As we practice resolving dilemmas we find ethics to be less a goal than a pathway, less a destination than a trip, less an inoculation than a process. U nderstanding how we make and follow through on ethical decisions is the first step to making better choices; taking a systematic approach is the second.
Ethical Standards and Strategies Components of Moral Action There are a number of models of ethical decision making and action. For example, business ethics educators Charles Powers and David Vogel identify six factors or elements that underlie moral reasoning and behavior and that are particularly relevant in organizational settings.
The second is moral identification and ordering, which, as the name suggests, refers to the ability to identify important issues, determine priorities, and sort out competing values.
The third factor is moral evaluation, or using analytical skills to evaluate options. The fourth element is tolerating moral disagreement and ambiguity, which arises when managers disagree about values and courses of action.
The fifth is the ability to integrate managerial competence with moral competence.
The sixth and final element is a sense of moral obligation, which serves as a motivating force to engage in moral judgment and to implement decisions. James Rest of the University of Minnesota developed what may be the most widely used model of moral behavior.
Rest built his four-component model by working backward.
He started with the end product—moral action—and then determined the steps that produce such behavior. He concluded that ethical action is the result of four psychological subprocesses: A great many moral failures stem from ethical insensitivity.
The safety committee at Ford Motor decided not to fix the defective gas tank on the Pinto automobile see Chapter 2 because members saw no problem with saving money rather than human lives. Wal-Mart was slow to respond to concerns raised by employees, labor groups, environmentalists, and others about wage violations, sexual discrimination, poor environmental practices, and other issues.
Ethical Decision Making and Behavior—— consequences of each potential strategy. Empathy and perspective skills are essential to this component of moral action. If we understand how others might feel or react, we are more sensitive to potential negative effects of our choices and can better predict the likely outcomes of each option.
A number of factors prevent us from recognizing ethical issues. We may not factor ethical considerations into our typical ways of thinking or mental models. We may be reluctant to use moral terminology values, justice, right, wrong to describe our decisions because we want to avoid controversy or believe that keeping silent will make us appear strong and capable.
The greater the moral intensity of an issue, the more likely it is that decision makers will take note of it and respond ethically. Ethical Standards and Strategies Finally, paying attention to our emotions can be an important clue that we are faced with an ethical dilemma.
Moral emotions are part of our makeup as humans. For example, we may feel angry when reading about mistreatment of migrant workers or sympathy when we see a picture of a refugee living in a squalid camp.
Moral emotions also encourage us to take action that benefits other people and society as a whole. We might write a letter protesting the poor working conditions of migrant laborers, for instance, or send money to a humanitarian organization working with displaced persons.
Anger, disgust, and contempt are other-condemning emotions. They are elicited by unfairness, betrayal, immorality, cruelty, poor performance, and status differences.
Anger can motivate us to redress injustices like racism, oppression, and poverty.
Disgust encourages us to set up rewards and punishments to deter inappropriate behaviors. Contempt generally causes us to step back from others.
The foundation of ethical decision-making involves choice and balance; it is a guide to discard bad choices in favor of good ones. Therefore, in making ethical decisions, one of the first questions to consider is 'what a reasonable man would do in this situation?'For tougher decisions, advisors may find three rules of management helpful. Ethical decision-making refers to the process of evaluating and choosing among alternatives in a manner consistent with ethical principles. In making ethical decisions, it is necessary to perceive and eliminate unethical options . Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action.
Shame, embarrassment, and guilt are self-conscious emotions that encourage us to obey the rules and uphold the social order. These feelings are triggered when we violate norms and social conventions, present the wrong image to others, and fail to live up to moral guidelines.
Shame and embarrassment can keep us from engaging in further damaging behavior and may drive us to withdraw from social contact.Ethical Decision Making Management March 22, Ethical Decision Making Halliburton is a corporate giant in the world and in the oil industry.
Halliburton is notorious for their poor legal, ethical, and social responsibilities. The Importance of Values and Culture in Ethical Decision Making Authored By: Christine Chmielewski How we perceive ourselves and operate within our environment is of such importance that institutions establish rules of ethical behavior that relate to practice.
Institutions that examine power and responsibility, and audit their ethical. (4)moral character Component 1: Moral Sensitivity (Recognition) Moral sensitivity (recognizing the presence of an ethical issue) is the first step in ethical decision making.
Empathy and perspectives skills are essential to this component of moral action. A great many moral failures stem. Ethical Decision Making and Behavior—— Principled leaders can boost the moral judgment of a group by encouraging members to adopt more sophisticated ethical schemas.
3 Models of cognitive development provide important insights into the process of ethical decision making. Ethical decision-making refers to the process of evaluating and choosing among alternatives in a manner consistent with ethical principles.
In making ethical decisions, it is necessary to perceive and eliminate unethical options . Chapter 7 - Ethical Decision Making and Behavior Understanding how we make and follow through on ethical decisions is the first step to making better choices; taking a systematic approach is the second.