FAQs Disparities Although the term disparities is often interpreted to mean racial or ethnic disparities, many dimensions of disparity exist in the United States, particularly in health. If a health outcome is seen to a greater or lesser extent between populations, there is disparity.
United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
National Prisoner Statistics, Annual estimates of resident population by sex, race, and Hispanic origin for the United States, states and counties: April 1, to July 1, See Methodology section for additional information.
The scale of racial disparity in incarceration can also be seen by comparing states that have lower than average black incarceration rates to those with higher than average white incarceration rates.
Here we find that the states with the highest white incarceration rates Oklahoma, Idaho, Texas, Florida, and Arizona fall below the states with the lowest black rates Hawaii, Massachusetts13 Data from Massachusetts in this report should be interpreted with caution.
The system of incarceration in Massachusetts is somewhat unique in that this state uses county-level houses of corrections to hold some inmates who have been convicted of felonies and sentenced up to 2.
The population of prisoners in houses of corrections is approximately 5, but the racial composition of those incarcerated at these institutions is not publicly reported. For this reason, estimates in this report do not include inmates in houses of corrections.
As a result, the rates of incarceration by race and ethnicity are underestimated. For more on the composition of Massachusetts prison system, see: Massachusetts Department of Corrections Drivers of Disparity Persistent racial disparities have long been a focus in criminological research and the presence of disparities is not disputed.
Racial disproportionality of U. Law, social standing and racial disparities in imprisonment. Social Forces 66 3: State racial disparities in imprisonment.
The Sentencing Project; Sorenson, J. Racial disproportionality in state prison admissions: Can regional variation be explained by differential arrest rates? Journal of Criminal Justice State rates of incarceration by race and ethnicity.
The Sentencing Project; Tonry, M. Racial Disproportions in US Prisons. British Journal of Criminology 34 1: Proposed explanations for disparities range from variations in offending based on race to biased decisionmaking in the criminal justice system, and also include a range of individual level factors such as poverty, education outcomes, unemployment history, and criminal history.
Racial disproportionality in the American prison population: Using the Blumstein method to address the critical race and justice issues of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal 5 2: Research in this area finds a smaller amount of unwarranted disparity for serious crimes like homicide than for less serious crimes, especially drug crimes.
He noted that if there was no discrimination after arrest, the racial makeup of prisoners should approximate the population of arrestees.
The greatest amount of unexplained disparity was found among drug offenses: University of Colorado Law Review 64 3: Subsequent studies have replicated this work with more recent data and found even higher amounts of unexplained disparities, particularly in the category of drug arrests.
Reassessing and redirecting research on race and sentencing. An American dilemma continues.
For less serious crimes, authorities may exercise greater discretion at the point of arrest. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 73 2: These factors might include forms of racial bias related to perceived racial threat.
Race, racial threat, and sentencing of habitual offenders. Race and disparities in sentencing:Minorities for Medical Marijuana is committed to cultivating a culturally inclusive environment where diversity of thought, experience and opportunities are valued, respected, appreciated and celebrated.
What are recent developments on the subject of race relations? Racial tolerance continues to be a clear trend in American society. In fact, during the past six years there has been a significant positive change in the perceptions of both African Americans and whites regarding the present state of race relations.
Washington Association of Community & Migrant Health Centers promotes health and human services for the underserved people of Washington ensuring that all Washingtonians have access to primary health care, regardless of geographic location, nationality, income level or insurance status.
This NASW research Web page focuses on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social work research. It provides an overview of an under-researched set of social concerns and provides links to resources and a collection of publications by social work researchers.
The APA's Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs (BEMA) established a Task Force on the Delivery of Services to Ethnic Minority Populations in in response to the increased awareness about psychological service needs associated with ethnic and cultural diversity.
ethnic minorities both indirectly through its impact on the political process but also more directly through experiences of personal hostility (see for instance the .