Inbefore his fifth birthday, his father died, and Louis inherited the throne of France. Mazarin had guided the nation through the later stages of the Thirty Years' War
This action abolished the regency council and made Anne sole Regent of France. Anne wanted to give her son an absolute authority and a victorious kingdom. Her rationales for choosing Mazarin were mainly his ability and his total dependence on her, at least until when she was no longer regent.
Anne protected Mazarin by arresting and exiling her followers who conspired against him in By keeping him in his post, Anne was giving a sign that the interests of France and her son Louis were the guiding spirit of all her political and legal actions.
Though not necessarily opposed to Spain, she sought to end the war with a French victory, in order to establish a lasting peace between the Catholic nations. The Queen also gave a partial Catholic orientation to French foreign policy.
Its terms ensured Dutch independence from Spainawarded some autonomy to the various German princes of the Holy Roman Empireand granted Sweden seats on the Imperial Diet and territories to control the mouths of the OderElbeand Weser rivers. France, however, profited most from the settlement.
Moreover, eager to emancipate themselves from Habsburg domination, petty German states sought French protection. This anticipated the formation of the League of the Rhineleading to the further diminution of Imperial power.
Anne interfered much more in internal policy than foreign affairs; she was a very proud queen who insisted on the divine rights of the King of France. Anne imprisoned any aristocrat or member of parliament who challenged her will; her main aim was to transfer to her son an absolute authority in the matters of finance and justice.
One of the leaders of the Parlement of Paris, whom she had jailed, died in prison. Furthermore, they believed their traditional influence and authority was being usurped by the recently ennobled bureaucrats the Noblesse de Robe, or "nobility of the robe"who administered the kingdom and on whom the monarchy increasingly began to rely.
Paris erupted in rioting as a result, and Anne was forced, under intense pressure, to free Broussel. Moreover, a mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king. Led into the royal bedchamber, they gazed upon Louis, who was feigning sleep, were appeased, and then quietly departed.
The threat to the royal family prompted Anne to flee Paris with the king and his courtiers. Beaufort, who had escaped from the prison where Anne had incarcerated him five years before, was the military leader in Paris, under the nominal control of Conti.
After a few battles, a political compromise was reached; the Peace of Rueil was signed, and the court returned to Paris. This aristocratic coalition was strong enough to liberate the princes, exile Mazarin, and impose a condition of virtual house arrest on Queen Anne.
All these events were witnessed by Louis and largely explained his later distrust of Paris and the higher aristocracy. It was not only that life became insecure and unpleasant — a fate meted out to many children in all ages — but that Louis had to be taken into the confidence of his mother and Mazarin and political and military matters of which he could have no deep understanding".
The Fronde years planted in Louis a hatred of Paris and a consequent determination to move out of the ancient capital as soon as possible, never to return. Unlike that which preceded it, tales of sordid intrigue and half-hearted warfare characterized this second phase of upper-class insurrection.
To the aristocracy, this rebellion represented a protest against and a reversal of their political demotion from vassals to courtiers. Queen Anne played the most important role in defeating the Fronde because she wanted to transfer absolute authority to her son.
In addition, most of the princes refused to deal with Mazarin, who went into exile for a number of years. The Fronde thus gradually lost steam and ended inwhen Mazarin returned triumphantly from exile.
From that time until his death, Mazarin was in charge of foreign and financial policy without the daily supervision of Anne, who was no longer regent. While Mazarin might have been tempted for a short period of time to marry his niece to the King of France, Queen Anne was absolutely against this; she wanted to marry her son to the daughter of her brother, Philip IV of Spainfor both dynastic and political reasons.
On the death of Mazarin, in MarchLouis assumed personal control of the reins of government and astonished his court by declaring that he would rule without a chief minister: It is now time that I govern them myself.
You [he was talking to the secretaries and ministers of state] will assist me with your counsels when I ask for them. I request and order you to seal no orders except by my command. I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport.
Praising his ability to choose and encourage men of talent, the historian Chateaubriand noted: Inthe treasury verged on bankruptcy.
However, Louis first had to neutralize Nicolas Fouquetthe Superintendent of Financesin order to give Colbert a free hand. The court was left with the impression that the vast sums of money needed to support his lifestyle could only have been obtained through embezzlement of government funds.Dec 02, · Watch video · The reign of France’s Louis XIV (), known as the Sun King, lasted for 72 years, longer than that of any other known European sovereign.
In . Louis was a major patron of architecture; he spent more money on buildings over the course of his reign than Louis XIV. His major architectural projects were the work of his favorite court architect, Ange-Jacques Gabriel.
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from until his death in S. John Wolf's book on Louis XIV has been noted as THE book on Louis XIV. Overall I feel this is strongly the case. The book is a combination of a biography of Louis and a history of France at the regardbouddhiste.coms: 8.
Watch video · Louis XIV was born on September 5, , in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye, France, and christened Louis-Dieudonné—French for "Gift of God." His mother was the Hapsburg Spanish queen Anne of Austria. Louis XIV is the most portrayed person in the kingdom.
The multiplication of his portraits ensured that they were distributed throughout the realm. I. The King, the man and posterity. Louis XIV is represented at the age of approximately 15 .