Press release Executive summary In Augusta Ferguson, Missouri, policeman shot and killed an unarmed black teenager. Observers who had not been looking closely at our evolving demographic patterns were surprised to see ghetto conditions we had come to associate with inner cities now duplicated in a formerly white suburban community: The conventional explanation adds that African Americans moved to a few places like Ferguson, not the suburbs generally, because prejudiced real estate agents steered black homebuyers away from other white suburbs. And in any event, those other suburbs were able to preserve their almost entirely white, upper-middle-class environments by enacting zoning rules that required only expensive single family homes, the thinking goes.
During the era of slavery, most African Americans resided in the Southmainly in rural areas. Under these circumstances, segregation did not prove necessary as the boundaries between free citizens and people held in bondage remained clear.
Furthermore, Before the Civil War, segregation existed mainly in cities in both the North and the South.
However, free people of color, located chiefly in cities and towns of the North and Upper Southexperienced segregation in various forms.
By the time the Supreme Court ruled in Dred Scott v. Sanford that African Americans were not U. When allowed into auditoriums and theaters, blacks occupied separate sections; they also attended segregated schools.
|Those Who Can See: Segregation: Our Most Cherished Myths||German warning in occupied Poland — "No entrance for Poles!|
Most churches, too, were segregated. Reconstruction after the Civil War posed serious challenges to white supremacy and segregation, especially in the South where most African Americans continued to live. The abolition of slavery infollowed by ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment extending citizenship and equal protection of the law to African Americans and In the years immediately after the Civil War segregation eased somewhat.
Yet the possibilities of blacks sharing public conveyances and public accommodations with whites increased during the period after Blacks obtained access to streetcars and railroads on an integrated basis. Indeed, many transportation companies favored integration because they did not want to risk losing black business.
African Americans did gain admission to desegregated public accommodations, but racial segregation, or Jim Crow as it became popularly known, remained the custom.
The term Jim Crow originated from the name of a character in an minstrel show, where whites performed in black face. Passage by Congress of the Civil Rights Act ofwhich barred racial discrimination in public accommodations, provides evidence of the continued presence of segregation and the need to rectify it.
The law lasted untilwhen the Supreme Court of the United States declared the statute unconstitutional for regulating what the justices considered private companies, such as streetcars and entertainment facilities. By this time, the interracial Reconstruction governments had fallen in the South and the federal government had retreated from strong enforcement of black civil rights.
With white-controlled governments back in power, the situation of southern blacks gradually deteriorated. To maintain solidarity and remove possible political threats, white southerners initiated a series of efforts to reduce further African American citizenship rights and enforce Jim Crow.
By the s it had become entrenched.
These laws forced blacks to sit in the back of the bus, on separate cars in trains, and in the balcony at theaters, for example. From this period on, segregation became a rigid legal system separating the races from cradle to grave—including segregated hospital facilities, cemeteries, and everything in between—no longer tolerating any flexibility in the racial interactions that had previously existed.
Why did Jim Crow become entrenched in the s? The third-party Populist uprising of that decade threatened conservative Democratic rule in the South. Many of those blacks who could still vote, and the number was considerable, joined the Populist insurgency.
To check this political rebellion and prevent blacks from wielding the balance of power in close elections, southern Democrats appealed to white solidarity to defeat the Populists, whipped up anti-Negro sentiment, disfranchised African Americans, and imposed strict de jure by law segregation.
In the North, while legislation combated segregation, African Americans were still kept separate and apart from whites. In contrast with the South, in the late s and early s, Indiana, Nebraska, Ohio, Michigan, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and New York all adopted laws that prohibited racial discrimination in public facilities.
Yet blacks encountered segregation in the North as well. Rather than through de jure segregation, most northern whites and blacks lived in separate neighborhoods and attended separate schools largely through de facto segregation.
This kind of segregation resulted from the fact that African Americans resided in distinct neighborhoods, stemming from insufficient income as well as a desire to live among their own people, as many ethnic groups did.
However, blacks separated themselves not merely as a matter of choice or custom. Instead, realtors and landlords steered blacks away from white neighborhoods and municipal ordinances and judicially enforced racial covenants signed by homeowners kept blacks out of white areas.
Inthe federal government sanctioned racial segregation, fashioning the constitutional rationale for keeping the races legally apart. In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson was based upon a belief in white supremacy. In its decision the majority of the court concluded that civil rights laws could not change racial destiny.
Local and state authorities never funded black education equally nor did African Americans have equal access to public accommodations.Overall, the idea of segregation and “separate but equal” may be constitutional, but because in the real world, racism would be inevitable no matter what situation you consider, the result would be .
The Court reasoned that mandating separate facilities for whites and blacks was fine as long as those facilities were equal;this established the "separate but equal" doctrine that would sanction policies of racial segregation in the South for decades to come. COURT CASE REVIEW SONG AND VIDEO!!!.
Marbury v. Madison = Judicial Review. McCulloch v. Maryland = Federal Supremacy, and the right to charter a bank. "The Power to Tax is the Power to Destroy!" Here's a list of other important John Marshall decisions. Topics: Racial segregation, United States, Separate but equal Pages: 3 ( words) Published: April 26, On May 17, the United States Supreme Court struck down the separate but equal doctrine in American public schools (Willoughby 40).
Segregation essays Separate But Equal has to do with the separation of blacks and whites. The blacks thought that separating them from the white people was violating the rights of citizens under the constitution.
The white people thought that the black people should be separate from them just becau. Freedom Movement Bibliography. See also: Books Written by Freedom Movement Veterans Book Titles Grouped by Subject Film, Videos & .