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Divisions[ edit ] One of the discussions among scholars of early Christianity in the past century is to what extent it is appropriate to speak of " orthodoxy " and " heresy ". Higher criticism drastically altered the previous perception that heresy was a very rare exception to the orthodoxy.
Bauer was particularly influential in the reconsideration of the historical model. During the s, increasing focus on the effect of social, political and economic circumstances on the formation of early Christianity occurred as Bauer's work found a wider audience.
Some scholars argue against the increasing focus on heresies. A movement away from presuming the correctness or dominance of the orthodoxy is seen as understandable, in light of modern approaches. However, they feel that instead of an even and neutral approach to historical analysis that the heterodox sects are given an assumption of superiority over the orthodox or proto-orthodox movement.
The current debate is vigorous and broad. While it is difficult to summarize all current views, general statements may be made, remembering that such broad strokes will have exceptions in specific cases.
Adoptionism An early form of Adoptionism, the doctrine that Jesus became the son of God by adoption held that Jesus was Thesis binding palo alto human only, and that he became divineby adoption at his baptism being chosen because of his sinless devotion to the will of God.
These words from Psalm 2 are also used twice in the canonical Epistle to the Hebrews which on the contrary presents Jesus as the Son "through whom God made the universe. It was formally rejected by the First Council of Nicaeawhich wrote the orthodox doctrine of the consubstantiality of the Father and the Son the co-eminence of the Holy Spirit, and thus the Trinity, did not come about until the Fourth Ecumenical [Council of Chalcedon] in AD and identified Jesus as eternally begotten.
Arianism Arianism, declared by the Council of Nicaea to be heresydenied the full divinity of Jesus Christ, and is so called after its leader Arius. Under Bishop Alexanderprobably in abouthe came forward as a champion of subordinationist teaching about the person of Christ.
This belief treats the sentence "the Word was made Flesh" John 1: Docetic theology was a prominent feature of dualistic gnostics Main article: Ebionites The Ebionites "poor ones" were a sect of Jewish Christians who flourished in the early centuries of Christianity, especially east of the Jordan.
They emphasized the binding character of the Mosaic Law and believed Jesus was the human son of Mary. They seem to have been ascetics, and are said to have rejected Paul's epistles and to have used only one Gospel.
Gnosticism and Valentinius Several distinct religious sects, some of them Christian, adhered to an array of beliefs that would later be termed Gnostic. One such sect, that of the Simonianswas said to have been founded by Simon Magusthe Samaritan who is mentioned in the 1st-century Acts 8: The most successful Christian Gnostic was the priest Valentinus c.
Gnostics considered the material world to be a prison created by a fallen or evil spirit, the god of the material world called the demiurge.
Gnostics identified the God of the Hebrew Bible as this demiurge. Secret knowledge gnosis was said to liberate one's soul to return to the true God in the realm of light.
Valentinus and other Christian gnostics identified Jesus as the Savior, a spirit sent from the true God into the material world to liberate the souls trapped there. While there appear to be Gnostic elements in some early Christian writing, Irenaeus and others condemned Gnosticism as a heresy, rejecting its dualistic cosmology and vilification of the material world and the creator of that world.
Gnostics thought the God of the Old Testament was not the true God. It was considered to be the demiurge and either fallen, as taught by Valentinus c. The Gospel of Johnaccording to Stephen L Harrisboth includes Gnostic elements and refutes Gnostic beliefs, presenting a dualistic universe of light and dark, spirit and matter, good and evil, much like the Gnostic accounts, but instead of escaping the material world, Jesus bridges the spiritual and physical worlds.Divisions.
One of the discussions among scholars of early Christianity in the past century is to what extent it is appropriate to speak of "orthodoxy" and "heresy".Higher criticism drastically altered the previous perception that heresy was a very rare exception to the orthodoxy.
Bauer was particularly influential in the reconsideration of the historical model. Gerry is a rotation student from the BMS grad program. Coming from tropical country Indonesia, he is interested to study malaria, especially the complex genetic and molecular basis of .
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