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Archaeological discoveries of traumatic injuries in primitive hominid skulls strongly hint that our species has a long history of violence [ 1 ]. Despite repeated attempts throughout history, including efforts to eliminate violence through the imposition of criminal sanctions, we have yet to dispel our violent nature.
Consequently, criminal violence remains a common feature of most societies. As policy-makers seek deeper understandings of criminally violent and anti-social behaviour, many contemporary neuroscientists assume that the essential ingredients of the human condition, including free will, empathy, and morality, are the calculable consequences of an immense assembly of neurons firing.
Intuitively, this view opposes Cartesian dualism i. Should We Rethink Free Will?
Research linking the brain to antisocial and criminal behaviour also raises neurophilosophical questions concerning our liberty.
A series of classic, yet controversial, studies by Benjamin Libet and colleagues showed that brain activity associated with deliberate decisions can be detected shortly before we are conscious of making the decision [ 63 ].
In these studies, participants reported when they first felt the intention to make a spontaneous movement by noting the position of a dot moving on computer screen. Despite criticisms about the accuracy of this timing method, recent research [ 6465 ] has shown that if anything, the actual onset of conscious intention is likely to be even later.
Moreover, psychologists report that our attributions of agency to actions are often illusory [ 66 ]. Despite these claims, free will as a concept is still unlikely to be eliminated. Clearly free will is a prerequisite for moral agency, and for society to run smoothly, we all need to believe that we are in full control of our actions.
Not surprisingly, some have tried to find a middle ground in this argument. Is it reasonable, however, to posit that some people are more free than others? For example, few can dispute the fact that brain diseases such as schizophrenia and Huntington disease reduce the ability to act freely.
Nonetheless, most juries may never have explicitly discussed the concept of free will [ 52 ]. Neurophilosophy may play an important role in understanding and updating the intuitions concerning free will and responsibility that may implicitly underlie juror deliberations.
From this standpoint, the exciting discoveries of neuroscience resonate far beyond mere philosophical banter and may have important implications for the way government institutions, including education and legal systems, operate. For example, to the extent that legal systems attempt both to move behaviour in socially desirable directions and also to adjudicate transgressions fairly, the legal system's effectiveness can be improved by deepening our understandings about why people behave as they do and both how and why people respond to various changes in legal incentives.
Specifically, neuroscience may have important implications for both how we understand the multiple influences on violent behaviour and how the legal system may better engage with violent criminals. Gage [ 2 ].Brain tumor is an abnormal growth of brain cells within the brain.
Detection of brain tumor is challenging problem due to complex structure of regardbouddhiste.com can provide the detail information about of brain tumor. Detection of brain tumor involves different stages such as image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification.
Abdel-Maksoud E et al (), worked on the concept of segmentation of the brain tumor based on a Hybrid Clustering Technique . Yogamangalam R and Karthikeyan B () compared different segmentation techniques used in image processing .
Esquenazi Yoshua et al () worked on cerebral edema in brain tumors.
A Review on Various Image Segmentation Techniques for Brain Tumor Detection Munmun Saha, Chandrasekhar Panda Department of Computer Science and Application, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Sambalpur, Odisha, India Brain tumor detection and segmentation is one of the most challenging and time consuming task in medical.
Consider is the neonatal brain MRI image database, where ‘ ’ is the number of images and the vector function of each image in the neonatal brain MRI image database is given as.
Preprocessing The regions of an image containing different intensity values can be modelled as a finite Gaussian distribution. Feb 09, · The immunohistochemistry technique is used in the search for cell or tissue antigens that range from amino acids and proteins to infectious agents and specific cellular populations.
Various Brain Tumor Detection Techniques - Brain tumor. Research paper on brain tumor detection People with a brain tumor may experience the following symptoms or signs.